Friday, March 11, 2011

Aku, Saya, Dia, dan Perubahan Sudut Pandang

PR revisi untuk novel saya  29 1/2 Hari adalah mengenai penggunaan sudut pandang.
Seringkali, karena asyik menulis cerita, saya kurang teliti dengan perubahan sudut pandang yang saya gunakan untuk menuliskan cerita. Dan point of view memang sesuatu yang masih harus terus saya pelajari. Dari situs yang mengetahui segalanya ini saya mencoba merangkum buku-buku yang bisa dibaca untuk mempelajari penggunaan sudut pandang dalam menulis cerita.

Daftar novel-novel dan jenis point of view-nya, ini antara lain :

First person present-tense : Everything happens in the character's 'now'.
Atwood, Cat's Eye
Dubus, House of Sand and Fog
Ellis, American Psycho
Ford,Independence Day
Frey, A Million Little Pieces
Hornby, High Fidelity
Palahniuk, Fight Club
Wong, The Pacific Between

First person protagonist : Where the narrator is the protagonist of the novel
Dinesen, Out of Africa
Salinger, Catcher in the Rye
Sebold, The Lovely Bones

First person ancillary : Where the narrator observes action, but is an ancillary character
Doyle, Sherlock Holmes
Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby
Fournier, Le Grand Meaulnes
Kesey, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest
Lee, To Kill a Mockingbird
Mann, Doktor Faustus

Multiple first person : Where multiple characters individually narrate from first-person POV
Bronte, Wuthering Heights
Irving, Setting Free the Bears
Korman, No More Dead Dogs
William Faulkner, As I Lay Dying
Graham Swift, Last Orders
Julian Barnes, Talking it Over
Ana Castillo, The Guardians
Charles Baxter, The Feast of Love
Ann Brashares, The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants
Barbara Kingsolver, The Poisonwood Bible

Second person, Second-person narrative, Present tense
Calvino, If on a Winter's Night a Traveler (odd-numbered chapters)
McInerney, Bright Lights, Big City
Robbins, Half Asleep in Frog Pajamas
Camus, The Fall
Murakami, After Dark

Past tense
Milne, Winnie-the-Pooh, ch. 1

Third person : Third-person narrative, Third person, limited, Third person limited omniscient

Card, Ender's Game.
The parallel novel Ender's Shadow is told from the same limited perspective following a different character.
Kelman, how late it was, how late.

Third person, omniscient or dramatic
McCullough, The Thornbirds
Mitchell, Gone with the Wind
Tolstoy, Anna Karenina

Third person, objective
Wolfe, The Right Stuff

Multiple points of view
Faulkner, The Sound and The Fury
Murakami, Kafka on the Shore
Wharton, Ethan Frome
Franzen, The Corrections
Winterson, Art & Lies

Semoga daftarnya membantu. Happy Writing!

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